Deep Roots

There are two important points in the consideration of roots:

  • They are a significant part of learning and so should be a significant part of design;
  • Designing the curriculum this way deepens learning itself.

There is no absolute right or wrong about what these roots are.  There are several sets of suggestions in the book – and they do  not all have to start with ‘C’.   Schools will select those roots that best fit their goals for their children.

This is rather like McLuhan seeing the medium as the message.  The fact that there are roots built into the design is the important message here.

An Holistic Approach

The analysis that sees skills as a way of deepening learning sees the skills as integral to the development of knowledge and understanding.

There is often a question about whether skills should be taught separately, and then applied in context, or whether they should be learned in the context in which they will be applied.

The answer to this, like the answer to many design questions, is: ‘both’, but depending on the context and learner.

Find more about Bloom’s Taxonomy at